FIGHTING CORRUPTION?

Fighting corruption is a crucial priority both in EU28 and WB countries. The majority of initiatives targeting corruption are aimed at decision makers and are thus distinctly top-down in character. While these initiatives are crucial in establishing rule of law, they often overlook the fact that corruption is entrenched in culture and the most effective long-term strategy for fighting it is to make it culturally unacceptable. Therefore, young people are the key target group — they are the future leaders, entrepreneurs and civil society actors.

MUTIMEDIA LIBRARY

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FIGHTING CORRUPTION

Scientific and Research Association for Art, Cultural and Educational Programmes and Technology EPEKA, Montenegro

Naucno-istrazivacko udruzenje za umetnost, kulturne i obrazovne programe i tehnologiju EPEKA, Serbia

ZNANSTVENO-RAZISKOVALNO ZDRUZENJE ZA UMETNOST, KULTURNE IN IZOBRAZEVALNE PROGRAME IN TEHNOLOGIJO EPEKA, SOCIALNO PODJETJE

CENTER FOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING PRIZREN, Kosovo

SOLIDARIDAD SIN FRONTERAS, Spain

QENDRA OPEN DOORS, Albania

Bosnian Representative Association for Valuable Opportunities, Bosnia and Hercegovina


Udruzenje za borbu protiv korupcije Transparency International, Bosnia and Herzegovina

UC LIMBURG, Belgium

Pokret Otoka / Island Movement, Croatia

ASOCIATIA FLUTURELE VISATOR, Romania

GLOSSARY

Short explanations of main terms related to corruption

Academic corruption

Any prescribed action taken in connection with an examination or test that attempts to gain unfair advantage. Beyond examination or test issues, it covers malpractices related to credentials, diplomas, research, academic journals and publications, admission to universities and accreditation fraud.

Example: Bias in the admissions or grading process; plagiarism.

Auditing

Official examination of an organization or institution's accounts to make sure money has been spent correctly, i.e. according to rules, regulations and norms.

 Example: Audits of ministries of education, universities or schools; financial audits, audits of teacher management or of procurement procedures (e.g. textbooks).

Capture (or leakage)

Illegal use of public resources and therefore lack of resources for the intended purpose.

 Example: Capture of school funds at local administrative level.

Conflict of interest

A situation where an individual or the entity for which they work, whether a government, business, media outlet or civil society organization, is confronted with having to choose between the duties and demands of their position and their own private interests.

Example: When a university professor sits in a selection jury and at the same time provides private tutoring lessons to candidates.

Corruption

The abuse of entrusted power for private gain. Corruption can be classified as grand, petty or political, depending on the amounts of money lost and the sector where it occurs.

 Corruption in education can be defined as the systematic use of public office for private benefit, whose impact is significant on the availability and quality of educational goods and services, and, as a consequence on access, quality or equity in education.

Degree mills or diploma mills

Dubious providers of educational offerings or operations that offer certificates and degrees that are considered bogus.

 Corruption in education can be defined as the systematic use of public office for private benefit, whose impact is significant on the availability and quality of educational goods and services, and, as a consequence on access, quality or equity in education.

Embezzlement

When a person holding office in an institution, organization or company dishonestly and illegally appropriates, uses or traffics the funds and goods they have been entrusted with for personal enrichment or other activities.

 Example: Educational funds used for political campaigns.

Ethics

Based on core values and norms, a set of standards for conduct in government, companies and society that guide decisions, choices and actions.

 There is a relationship between ethics in education and ethical education: in order to create a favourable environment for the teaching of ethics and values, it is critical to ensure integrity and limit unethical behaviour within the educational sector.

Examination fraud

Cheating or swindling in the following levels of the examination process: design of exams, admission to exam, marking of results and admission of successful candidates to the next education level. It includes also the selling of exam questions.

Extortion

Unlawful demand or receipt of property or money through the use of force or threat. A typical example of extortion would be when armed police or military men exact money for passage through a roadblock. Synonyms include blackmail, bloodsucking and extraction.

Favouritism

The practice of giving unfair preferential treatment to one person or group at the expense of another. Inclination to prefer acquaintances, friends and family over strangers. When public officials demonstrate favouritism to unfairly distribute positions and resources, they are guilty of cronyism or nepotism, depending on their relationship with the person who benefits.

Example: Recruitment of administrators based on their membership of a political party.

Fraud

Wrongful or criminal deception intended to result in financial, political or personal gain.

Example: Ghost teachers, diploma mills and accreditation mills.

Ghost worker

Draws salary but does not work.

 Example: Ghost teachers.

Integrity

Adherence to a set of moral or ethical principles.

Nepotism

Favouritism granted to relatives.

Example: Leakage of exam questions by paper setters in favour of someone in their family.

Petty corruption

Petty, bureaucratic, or administrative corruption takes place at the implementation end of politics, where the public meets public officials. Petty corruption is usually distinguished from “grand" and political corruption. It usually involves smaller amounts of money, but the damage may be significant in social terms.

 

Example: Illegal fees paid by parents to get their children admitted to schools, to be promoted or to pass their exams.

Transparency

Quality of being clear, honest and open. As a principle, transparency implies that civil servants, managers and trustees have a duty to act visibly, predictably and understandably. Sufficient information must be available so that other agencies and the general public can assess whether the relevant procedures are followed, consonant with the given mandate. Transparency is considered an essential element of accountable governance, leading to improved resource allocation, enhanced efficiency, and better prospects for economic growth.

Extent to which stakeholders (school principals, school councils, parents, pupils and the local community) can understand the basis on which educational resources (financial, material and human resources) are allocated to their individual establishment and how they are used.

Whistleblower

People who inform the public or the authorities about corrupt transactions they have witnessed or uncovered.

ABOUT PROJECT 

The latest Special Eurobarometer 470 shows that more than 60% of EU citizens think that corruption is present in their country; the corruption perception index shows a far bleaker picture for Western Balkan (WB) countries. Not only is corruption an impediment to joining the EU, it also has considerable impact on the economic sector, society and individuals. Thus the consortium designed “Fighting Corruption — Expanding the Union” — a project that uses a bottom-up approach to tackling corruption through educating youth workers (from the EU and WB), designing a toolkit and developing non-formal education methods, through which youth workers from partner countries will empower youth to address cases of corruption. The consortium includes 11 organisations from 10 countries (5 from the EU and 5 from WB)

Fighting corruption is a crucial priority both in EU28 and WB countries. The majority of initiatives targeting corruption are aimed at decision makers and are thus distinctly top-down in character. While these initiatives are crucial in establishing rule of law, they often overlook the fact that corruption is entrenched in culture and the most effective long-term strategy for fighting it is to make it culturally unacceptable. Therefore, young people are the key target group — they are the future leaders, entrepreneurs and civil society actors.

 

OBJECTIVES

– Increase the level and intensity of cooperation between programme countries and partner countries from WB. Related to this is also the long-term aim of creating a robust youth anti-corruption platform focused on the WB but working with a decidedly inter-regional and trans-sectoral perspective.
–Increase the capacities of youth organisations based in WB.
– Increase the competences of youth workers in WB, the EU and beyond.
– Educate youth about recognising, reporting and fighting corruption.
– Establish the image of the EU as a supranational entity taking a stand against corrupt practices.
– Design a toolkit for educating youth about corruption.
– Educate the general public about corruption in their country and ways of opposing it.

ACTIVITIES

E

Transnational project meetings

E

3 mobilities of youth workers

  • Slovenia, Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Duration: 5 days each
  • of participants: min. 22 per mobility
E

1 youth exchange

  • Berane, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Duration: 7 days
  • Nr. of participants: min. 50

Posts for activities taken place:

Day 3 of TC: Online lecture and exploration of Sarajevo

Day 3 of TC: Online lecture and exploration of Sarajevo

2 June 2021 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Continuing with preparing toolkits, we learned more about the role of media for #fightingcorruptionexpandingtheunion. Next, Jasmin Ferhatović and Caspar Cvetić from Slovenia talked about issues the whistleblowers have and...

Day 2 of TC: Whistleblowing and toolkit preparation

Day 2 of TC: Whistleblowing and toolkit preparation

1 June 2021 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Day 2 was busy and full of new insights!  Our first speaker Peđa Đurasović was speaking about whistleblowing as a human right and familiarized us with the role of the European Court for Human Rights. Then, whistleblower...

Day 1 of TC: Introduction and press conference

Day 1 of TC: Introduction and press conference

31 May 2021 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina On the first day, we were welcomed by our hosts, who briefly introduced us to the project and the forthcoming schedule. After that we have talked about our expectations, fears, and contributions and rounded the day up by...